THE COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES –
САЛАЛАС ҚҰРМАЛАС ЖӘНЕ САБАҚТАС
Слайд 2THE RULES
A simple sentence consists of one independent clause. An independent
clause contains a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought.
During the game, Jasmine scored 23 points, had 6 assists, 8 rebounds, and 2 blocked shots.
Tim is a really good pitcher and hitter.
Слайд 3COMPOUND SENTENCES
They have two complete sentences that can stand on their
own as two independent clauses
The key is to find one of the FANBOYS with a comma before it and a complete sentence on both sides of the FANBOYS.
It may also be identified by having a semi-colon without FANBOYS joining the two sentences.
Слайд 4THE RULES
A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and one
or more dependent clauses. Using a subordinating conjunction (because, although, if, etc.) creates a dependent clause. Using a relative pronoun (who, whom, that, or which) creates a dependent clause.
I would really love my English class if we didn’t have to do so much writing.
Here are some examples
My dog is small.
I hate sprouts.
I am 10 years old.
I live in Stonham Aspal.
Simple sentences have 1 clause. Most simple sentences have a subject and a predicate.
E.g. My dog is small.
Subject = dog
Predicate = It is small.
Слайд 6Compound Sentences
A compound sentence is usually made from 2 or
more simple sentences (or clauses) that are joined with a connective.
My dog is not popular with the neighbours.
It scares the postman away.
My dog is not popular with the neighbours it scares the postman away.
Слайд 7There are many connectives that can be used in compound sentences
Слайд 8But Be CAREFUL!!!
use the same connective
over and over again
It’s better to mix and match
A complex sentence is similar to a compound sentence,
however when you take away the connective one of the clauses does not make sense.
E.g. The dinner was burned because she had forgotten it.
Clause 2 does not make sense on its own, without clause 1 = complex sentence.
Exercise 2. Determine Simple, Compound or Complex Sentences
1. Their practice field
is a stretch of asphalt, and their heroes make a living driving cars.
2. The training rooms of these college athletes smell of grease and gasoline.
3. Their tools are screwdrivers and spanners rather than basketballs and footballs.
4. This new brand of college athlete is involved in the sport of auto racing.
5. Although the sport is new, it has already attracted six collegiate teams in the Southeast.
6. The students work on special cars designed for their sport.
Слайд 11Exercise 3. Combine the following simple sentences to create a compound
1.It rained for three days. The streets in my neighborhood flooded.
It rained for three days, so the streets in my neighborhood flooded.
2.I got to ball practice late. I forgot to set my alarm.
3.Kyle completed his homework. He put it in his binder.
4.Luke mowed the lawn. He earned ten dollars.
5.I stayed up late last night. I am tired today.
6.Neil doesn't like seafood. He doesn't like cabbage.
7.My pencil was broken. I borrowed one from Jake.
8.I like apples. I like pears more.
Слайд 12Exercise 1. Translate the sentences and determine whether they are compound
1. Jason decided to stay up late because he had a lot of homework to do.
2.If you hurry, we might get to school on time.
3.Although Monica had a cold, she went to school because she had a test.
4.While washing the car, Todd slipped on the soap and he fell.
5.Dad takes the train to work even though he has a car.
6.Molly baked brownies since she had nothing else to do.
7. Frank had a good sense of humor, so he laughed a lot.
CHARACTERISTICS OF VITAMINS
Vitamins are micronutrients
Very small amounts are needed by the
body (>1 gm)
Very small amounts are contained in foods.
Vitamins are essential.
The roles they play in the body are very important.
Most vitamins are obtained from the foods we eat.
Some are made by bacteria in the intestine
There is no perfect food that contains all the vitamins in the right amount.
Vitamins are non-energy producing
They do not contain kcalories.
Vitamins are classified according to how soluble they are in fat or water.
Слайд 14FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS VS.
WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Слайд 16FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
found in fats and oils
require bile for absorption
enter the lymph,
then the blood
held and stored in fatty tissues
Needed in small amounts
may reach toxic levels
not readily excreted
Слайд 17VITAMIN A
3 forms in the body
collectively known as retinoids
Retinal, the aldehyde form
Retinoic acid, the acid form
Beta-carotene, a precursor
Cleavage at this point can
yield two molecules of vitamin A*
Слайд 18VITAMIN A
derived from plant foods
can split and form retinol in
intestine and liver
Слайд 19VITAMIN A FUNCTION
maintain epithelial tissue and skin
support reproduction and growth
Слайд 20VITAMIN A
pneumonia, measles, diarrhea
dry, rough, scaly skin
Слайд 21Vitamin A Sources
Dark leafy green vegetables, spinach, broccoli
Deep orange veggies
squash, sweet potato
Deep orange fruits
Fortified milk, butter cheese, cream
Слайд 23VITAMIN D
body can make
precursor made from
production occurs in liver
diseases can affect activation
Слайд 24 FUNCTION VITAMIN D
part of the bone-making/maintenance team
maintains blood concentrations
of Ca & P
Mineralization of bones
raises blood calcium and phosphorus by increasing absorption from digestive tract
withdrawing calcium from bones
stimulating retention by kidneys
ultimately creates a calcium deficiency
Слайд 25VITAMIN D
fortified food: milk, margarine, cereals, beef,
storage from the summer does not last the winter
Слайд 26VITAMIN E
defender against free radicals
polyunsaturated fatty acids
may reduce the risk of
Слайд 27VITAMIN E
widespread in food
easily destroyed by heat processing
Слайд 28VITAMIN K
aids in blood clotting and
deficiency causes hemorrhagic disease
bacteria in GI tract
absorbed and stored in liver
Слайд 30WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
B complex , c
Слайд 31WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
The B-complex vitamins are often associated with giving a
person more energy. This is due to the fact that these vitamins each play different roles with energy metabolism in the body. When they are present in the body, they allow energy to be used more readily by the body.
Since these vitamins are water soluble, they are not stored in the body like fat soluble vitamins. They dissolve in water and are excreted from the body in urine. Therefore, it is important to consume foods rich in these vitamins each day in order to fulfill the body’s need.
Слайд 32B COMPLEX VITAMINS
Co-enzymes (activate enzymes)
Found in the same foods
Single deficiency rare
together in metabolism
Metabolic pathways used by protein, carbohydrate, and fat
Слайд 33Thiamin (B1)
B COMPLEX VITAMINS
Слайд 34B COMPLEX PRIMARY FUNCTIONS
Thiamin (B-1), Riboflavin (B-2), Niacin (B-3), Pyridoxine
(B-6), Biotin, Pantothenic Acid
Red blood cell synthesis
Folate, B12, B6
Слайд 35VITAMIN C
Synthesized by most animals (not by humans)
Decrease absorption with high
Слайд 36FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN C
Reducing agent (antioxidant)
Iron absorption (enhances)
Synthesis of collagen
not prevent colds, but may reduce duration of symptoms by a day
Слайд 37VITAMIN C DEFICIENCY: HISTORY OF SCURVY
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency leads
to scurvy, a disease characterized by weakness, small hemorrhages throughout the body that cause gums and skin to bleed, and loosening of the teeth. Sailors that were out at sea for months on end would often develop scurvy unless the captain had the foresight to pack limes and other citrus fruits.
Слайд 38DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN C
Deficient diet for 20-40 days
Fatigue, pinpoint hemorrhages
gums and joints. Hemorrhages
Associated with poverty; macrobiotic diet
Слайд 39FOOD SOURCES OF VITAMIN C
Easily lost through cooking
Sensitive to iron, copper, oxygen