Слайд 2A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or
decks. Red double-decker buses are used for mass transit in London. Double-decker buses are also used in other cities in Europe, Asia, and former British colonies and protectorates such as Hong Kong and Singapore.
Слайд 3United Kingdom
Double-decker buses are in common use throughout the United Kingdom,
and have been favoured over articulated buses by many operators because of the shorter length of double-deckers, and less need to have standing capacity. The majority of double-decker buses in the UK are between 9.5 metres (31 ft 2 in) and 11.0 metres (36 ft 1 in) long, the latter being more common since the mid-1990s.
The red double-decker buses in London have become a national symbol of England and British Isles. The majority of buses in London are double-deckers. Right after the Second World War the first double-decker buses were the AEC Regent II and AEC Regent III models.
Слайд 5Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland, the majority of buses
operated in and around Greater Dublin by Dublin Bus are double-deckers. There are 1,125 double-decker buses (second after London) in the company's fleet of 1,199.
The Bus Éireann company also utilises double-decker buses on some of its short-haul routes, such as the Dublin to Dundalk service.
In Germany, double-decker buses in Berlin are operated by Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe
(BVG). The fleet of double-decker buses in Berlin fell from 1,000 in 1992 to 450 in 2002. The models in operation in 2002 were 13.5 metres (44 ft 3 in) long and held around 95 passengers. The replacements, which are supplied by Neoman Bus, are 1.8 metres (5 ft 11 in) longer. The new buses are able to hold 128 passengers.
The Macedonian government bought 220 double-decker city buses for local transport
in Skopje, the capital. The first shipment of 68 custom-made buses arrived in Skopje in 2011 from China’s Zhengzhou Yutong factory. The buses were put into operation on 8 September, coinciding with the day of Macedonian independence. This model of bus have capacity for 80 passengers.
In Turkey, the Istanbul public transit system (IETT) runs 89 double-decker
buses on longer-distance routes, most notably commuter buses crossing the Bosphorus Bridge linking the European and the Asian sides of the city. Double-decker buses are also used on routes to and from Taksim Square to far-flung western suburbs such as Büyükçekmece and Bahcesehir.
The first double-decker bus was invented in Paris in 1853, it
was an horse-drawn omnibus. The upper floor was cheaper and often uncovered.
The first double-decker motor bus in Paris, Schneider Brillié P2, appeared in 1906. It was designed to allow more passengers and to replace the horse-drawn double-decker omnibus. Like trams and omnibuses, double-decker motor buses include several classes: the first, inside the car and the second class on the deck outdoors. But this type of vehicle disappeared in 1911 because one of these buses overturned at place de l'Étoile, following this incident the P2 lost their imperial[clarification needed] and were renamed P3.
It's not until 1966 that the RATP retried the experience of double-decker bus on two lines in Paris. A prototype built by Berliet (type E-PCMR), was put in service in 1966. An order was placed for 25 vehicles. The commissioning of the first production car was effective on June 19, 1968 on line 94, Gare Montparnasse - Levallois. The February 17, 1969, line 53, Opera - Porte d'Asnieres, in turn, was equipped with this model. But the traffic problems make it definitively abandon this vehicle in 1977, because this type of bus is poorly suited to the structure of the Paris network, the stops being too close to each other which prevented people from going upstairs. Since, there are no Parisian mass transit lines using double-decker buses.
Double-decker buses in Russia are currently operated in Asian city of
Barnaul, capital of Altai. The fleet of double-decker buses in Barnaul consist of MAN SD200 and MAN SD 202 buses imported from Berlin. Those buses are in use on routes 3, 10 and 17. Some cities in Russia, including Moscow and Saint-Petersburg, plan to begin operating of double-decker buses; in the mid-1990s, some double-deckers have been used in St. Petersburg for a short time.
Слайд 13During the 2012 Summer Olympics Czech artist David Černý presented his
moving sculpture named London Booster, a full-sized "London double-decker bus" (actually ex-Southern Vectis from the Isle of Wight) permanently doing push-ups with hydraulic-powered human-like arms. This was an accompanying installation outside temporarily Czech Olympic House in London borough of Islington.