Презентация, доклад к уроку английского языка Операционные системы

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Слайд 1
Operating systemsTeacher : Popova E.P.Nizhny Novgorod2016Nizhny Novgorod Automotive Technical School
Текст слайда:

Operating systems

Teacher : Popova E.P.

Nizhny Novgorod
2016

Nizhny Novgorod Automotive Technical School


Слайд 2
What is Operating systems?An operating system is the program that manages all the application programs in a computer system. This also includes managing the input
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What is Operating systems?

An operating system is the program that manages all the application programs in a computer system. This also includes managing the input and output devices, and assigning system resources.
Operating systems evolved as the solution to the problems that were evident in early computer systems, and coincide with the changing computer systems


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WindowsWhen referring to an operating system, Windows or win is an operating environment created by Microsoft that provides an interface, known as a
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Windows

When referring to an operating system, Windows or win is an operating environment created by Microsoft that provides an interface, known as a Graphical User Interface (GUI), for computers. Windows eliminates the need to memorize commands for the command line (MS-DOS) by using a mouse to navigate through menus, dialog boxes, buttons, tabs, and icons. If you are using a PC (IBM) computer you are most likely using a version of Windows. If you are on an Apple computer you are using macOS.


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Microsoft Windows was first introduced with version 1.0 on November 10, 1983. Since its release, there have been
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Microsoft Windows was first introduced with version 1.0 on November 10, 1983. Since its release, there have been over a dozen versions of Windows. The most current version of Windows for end users is Windows 10.


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Windows versions through the years 1985: Windows 1.0Like many early versions, Windows 1.0, was essentially a program that
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Windows versions through the years

1985: Windows 1.0

Like many early versions, Windows 1.0, was essentially a program that ran on top of DOS.  The system wasn’t released until two years after its first announcement, leading to suggestions that Windows was vaporware and would never actually appear. 


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1987: Windows 2.0-2.11The system introduced the control panel and ran the first versions of Excel and Word. Extended memory was supported
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1987: Windows 2.0-2.11

The system introduced the control panel and ran the first versions of Excel and Word. Extended memory was supported and updated for the release of Intel’s 80386 processor.


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1990: Windows 3.0Windows 3.0 was highly successful upon initial release. The system supported 16 colors, and with this
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1990: Windows 3.0

Windows 3.0 was highly successful upon initial release. The system supported 16 colors, and with this adaptation the interface began to resemble more closely the versions of the future. 


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1993: Windows NTWindows NT’s release marked the completion of a side project to build a new, advanced OS.
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1993: Windows NT

Windows NT’s release marked the completion of a side project to build a new, advanced OS. Standing for “new technology,” NT was 32-bit and had a hardware abstraction layer.


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1995: Windows 95Windows 95 facilitated hardware installation with plug and play. It also brought more colors, enhanced multimedia capabilities and TCP/IP network support. Direct
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1995: Windows 95

Windows 95 facilitated hardware installation with plug and play. It also brought more colors, enhanced multimedia capabilities and TCP/IP network support. Direct X began to make Windows gaming possible for more demanding games.


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1998: Windows 98Windows 98 expressed Microsoft's belief that users want and should have a global view of their
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1998: Windows 98

Windows 98 expressed Microsoft's belief that users want and should have a global view of their potential resources and that Web technology should be an important part of the user interface. 


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2001: Windows ХРWindows XP was released as the first NT-based system with a version aimed squarely at the
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2001: Windows ХР

Windows XP was released as the first NT-based system with a version aimed squarely at the home user. XP was rated highly by both users and critics. The system improved Windows’ appearance with themes, and offered a stable platform.


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2006: ОS Windows Vista СWindows Vista was a highly hyped release that spent a lot of developmental and
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2006: ОS Windows Vista С

Windows Vista was a highly hyped release that spent a lot of developmental and computer resources on appearance. The dedication of resources might have resulted from the fact that XP was starting to look archaic in comparison to Mac OS. Vista had interesting visual effects but was slow to start and run. 


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2009: Windows 7Windows 7 is built on the Vista kernel. Windows 7 had the visuals of Vista with better start
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2009: Windows 7

Windows 7 is built on the Vista kernel. Windows 7 had the visuals of Vista with better start up and program speed. It was easier on memory and more reliable. To many end users, the biggest changes between Vista and Windows 7 are faster boot times, new user interfaces and the addition of Internet Explorer 8. 


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2012: Windows 8Windows 8 was released with a number of enhancements and the new Metro UI. Windows 8 takes better
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2012: Windows 8

Windows 8 was released with a number of enhancements and the new Metro UI. Windows 8 takes better advantage of multi-core processing, solid state drives (SSD), touch screens and other alternate input methods. However users found it awkward, like switching between an interface made for a touch screen and one made for a mouse -- with neither one entirely suited to the purpose. Generally Windows 7 retained market leadership.


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2015: Windows 10Microsoft announced Windows 10 in September 2014, skipping Windows 9. Version 10 includes the start
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2015: Windows 10

Microsoft announced Windows 10 in September 2014, skipping Windows 9. Version 10 includes the start menu, which was absent from Windows 8. A responsive design feature called Continuum adapts the interface depending on whether the touch screen or keyboard and mouse are being used for input. New features like an on-screen back button simplify touch input. The OS is designed to have a consistent interface across user devices including PCs, laptops, phones and tablets.


Слайд 16
UnixUnix -- often spelled UNIX, especially as an official trademark -- is a multi-user operating system designed for flexibility and
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Unix

Unix -- often spelled UNIX, especially as an official trademark -- is a multi-user operating system designed for flexibility and adaptability. Originally developed in the 1970s, Unix was one of the first operating systems to be written in C language.


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Prior to 1973, Unix was written in assembler language, but the fourth edition of Unix was rewritten
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Prior to 1973, Unix was written in assembler language, but the fourth edition of Unix was rewritten in C. This was revolutionary at the time because operating systems were thought to be too complex and sophisticated to be written in C, a high-level language. This increased Unix's portability to other computing platforms.
In the late 1970s and early 80s, Unix had a strong influence in academia that led commercial startups, such as Solaris Technologies and Sequent, to adopt it on a larger scale. In the late 1990s, a network of programmers collaboratively developed Linux and Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) distributions, which led Unix-like systems to grow in popularity. Today, a variety of modern servers, workstations and mobile devices use Unix operating systems.

The history of Unix


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Unix has a set of concepts that make it unique. For example, Unix uses plain text to
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Unix has a set of concepts that make it unique. For example, Unix uses plain text to store data. It also uses hierarchical file systems and treats devices and certain kinds of inter process communication (IPC) as files.

How Unix works and why it's important


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Popular basic Unix commands 
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Popular basic Unix commands 


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Uses and the future of UnixRecently, Unix has seen a decline in usage, primarily due to the
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Uses and the future of Unix

Recently, Unix has seen a decline in usage, primarily due to the migration from RISCplatforms to x86-based alternatives that can run many Unix workloads with higher performance at a lower cost. Experts predict that many organizations will continue to use Unix for mission-critical environments, but will decrease their dependency on the system due to IT modernization and consolidation strategies.
However, Unix is still the preferred system for many use cases, such as vertical-specific software, vertical scaling applications and security features. Future Unix server sales are expected to drop, but applications in financial, government and telecommunications will continue to drive Unix use.
Eventually, Unix may be abandoned completely, but it will likely be a long, slow decline before that happens.


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LinuxLinux is a Unix-like, open source and community-developed operating system for computers, servers, mainframes, mobile devices and embedded devices. It
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Linux

Linux is a Unix-like, open source and community-developed operating system for computers, servers, mainframes, mobile devices and embedded devices. It is supported on almost every major computer platform including x86, ARM and SPARC, making it one of the most widely supported operating systems.


Слайд 22
History of LinuxLinus Torvalds started working on Linux as a replacement to the MINIX operating system while at
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History of Linux

Linus Torvalds started working on Linux as a replacement to the MINIX operating system while at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Torvalds recognized the work done on the GNU Project in 1983, which intended to create a complete, Unix-compatible operating system comprised entirely of free software, and noted the GNU as a model for distribution. However, the work on GNU had not been finished by the time Torvalds sought a MINIX replacement, prompting him to develop an alternate operating system kernel dubbed Linux -- a contraction of "Linus' Unix" -- and adopt the GNU GPL.
Torvalds released the Linux kernel in September 1991. A community of developers worked to integrate GNU components with Torvalds' kernel to create a complete, free operating system known collectively as Linux. Torvalds continues to develop the Linux kernel, currently at version 4.9, and a vast developer community continues to create and integrate a wide range of components.


Слайд 23
How is Linux operating system usedEvery version of the Linux operating system manages hardware resources, launches and
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How is Linux operating system used

Every version of the Linux operating system manages hardware resources, launches and handles applications, and provides some form of user interface. The enormous development community and wide range of distributions means that a Linux version is available for almost any task, and Linux has penetrated many areas of computing.
For example, Linux has emerged as a popular operating system for web servers such as Apache, as well as for network operations, scientific computing tasks that require huge compute clusters, running databases, desktop/endpoint computing and running mobile devices with OS versions like Android.


Слайд 25
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Windows, Unix and Linux?Linux Operating System:Performance: Linux provides high performance on
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of Windows, Unix and Linux?

Linux Operating System:

Performance: Linux provides high performance on workstations and on networks. It also helps in making old computers  sufficient and usable again and also can handle many users at a time.
Stability: You don’t have to reboot periodically to maintain performance. It can handle large number of users and does not hang up or slow down due to memory issues. Continuous up time upto a year or so is common.
Flexibility: It is used for high performance applications, desktop applications and embedded applications. You can save disk space by installing components required for a particular use. You can restrict specific computers instead of all computers.
Security: The security aspect of the linux is very strong as it is very secure and it is less prominent to viruses, even if there is an attack there would be immediate step taken by the developers all over the world to resolve it.
Choice: Choice is one of the greatest advantage of Linux. It gives the power to control every aspect of the operating system. Main features that you have control is look and feel of desktop by Windows Manager and  kernel.

Advantages:


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Disadvantages:Understanding: To become familiar with Linux you need to have a lot of patience and desire to read
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Disadvantages:

Understanding: To become familiar with Linux you need to have a lot of patience and desire to read and explore about it.
Software: Linux has a limited selection of available softwares.
Ease: Even though Linux has improved a lot in ease of use but windows is much easier.
Hardware: Linux doesnot support many hardware devices.


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Windows Operating System:Advantages:Ease: Microsoft Windows has made much advancement and changes which made it easy to use the
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Windows Operating System:

Advantages:

Ease: Microsoft Windows has made much advancement and changes which made it easy to use the operating system. Even though it is not the easiest, it is easier than linux.
Software: Since there are more number of Microsoft users there are more software programs, games and utilities for windows. All most all games are compatible to windows, some CPU intensive and graphic intensive games are also supported.
Hardware: All hardware manufacturers will support Microsoft windows. Due to large number of Microsoft users and broader driver, all the hardware devices are supported.
Front Page Extension: When using a popular web design program having windows hosting makes it lot more easier. You don’t have to worry if it supported or not.
Development: If you plan to develop windows based applications then windows platform is most suggested as linux does not support windows applications.


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Disadvantage:Price: Microsoft windows is costly compared to Linux as each license costs between $50.00-$100.00.Security: When compared to linux it is
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Disadvantage:

Price: Microsoft windows is costly compared to Linux as each license costs between $50.00-$100.00.
Security: When compared to linux it is much more prone to viruses and other attacks.
Reliability: It needs to be rebooted periodically else there is a possibility of hang up of the system.
Software Cost: Even though the windows have softwares,games for free most of the programs will cost more than $200.


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Unix Operating System:Advantages:Full multitasking with protected memory. Multiple users can run multiple programs each at the same
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Unix Operating System:

Advantages:

Full multitasking with protected memory. Multiple users can run multiple programs each at the same time without interfering with each other or crashing the system.
A rich set of small commands and utilities that do specific tasks well -- not cluttered up with lots of special options. Unix is a well-stocked toolbox, not a giant do-it-all Swiss Army Knife.
Ability to string commands and utilities together in unlimited ways to accomplish more complicated tasks -- not limited to preconfigured combinations or menus, as in personal computer systems.







A powerfully unified file system. Everything is a file: data, programs, and all physical devices. Entire file system appears as a single large tree of nested directories, regardless of how many different physical devices (disks) are included.
A lean kernel that does the basics for you but doesn't get in the way when you try to do the unusual.
Available on a wide variety of machines - the most truly portable operating system.
Optimized for program development, and thus for the unusual circumstances that are the rule in research.


Слайд 30
Disadvantage:The traditional command line shell interface is user hostile -- designed for the programmer, not the casual
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Disadvantage:

The traditional command line shell interface is user hostile -- designed for the programmer, not the casual user.
Commands often have cryptic names and give very little response to tell the user what they are doing. Much use of special keyboard characters - little typos have unexpected results.
To use Unix well, you need to understand some of the main design features. Its power comes from knowing how to make commands and programs interact with each other, not just from treating each as a fixed black box.
Richness of utilities (over 400 standard ones) often overwhelms novices. Documentation is short on examples and tutorials to help you figure out how to use the many tools provided to accomplish various kinds of tasks.


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 Both Windows, Unix and Linux Hosting have advantages and disadvantages. Based on your requirements you need to
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 Both Windows, Unix and Linux Hosting have advantages and disadvantages. Based on your requirements you need to opt which hosting suits better.

Conclusion:


Слайд 32
List of sources used:https://www.quora.com/http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/definition/Unix
Текст слайда:

List of sources used:

https://www.quora.com/
http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/definition/Unix


Слайд 33
Presentation endedThank you for your attention!
Текст слайда:

Presentation ended
Thank you for your attention!


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